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July 10, 1913     The Sun Newspaper
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Installment 12 He had not been put upon their committee Of correslmndenee• or been appointed with Nicholas and Pendle- ton and Lee and Henry to draw reso- lutions and remonstrances; but when It came to choosing those who should represent the Old Dominion In the con- gress, but two names stood before his in thevote. Peyton Randolph, 104; Richard Henry Lee, 100; George Washington, 98; Patrick Henry• 89;  Richard Bland. 79; Benjamin Harri- son, 66; Edmund Pendleton• 62--duch had been the preference of the cn- ventlon. Admired by Northerners. The northern\\;delegates admired his "easy. soldier-lie air and gesture" and his modest and "cool but deter- mined style and accent when he spoke; and wondered to see him look scares forty, whe.n they recalled how his name had gone through the cole- -ales twenty years ago, when he had met the French .so gallantly at Great Meadows, and wlth Braddock at the forks of the Ohio. The Massachusetts delegates had reason to admire his manly openness, too, and straightforward candor. An 01d comrade in arms whom he es- teemed--a Virginian now in regular commission, and stationed with the -: troops in Boston--had written him very damaging things about the "pa- triot" leaders of the beset town; of their "tyrannical oppression over one another." and "their fixed aim at total independence," and had charged them roundly with being no better than demagogues and rebels. Investigates for Himself. Washington went at once to the men accused, to learn from their own lips their principles and intentions, taking Richard Henry Lee and discreet Dr. Shippen along with him as his spon- J=ors and witnesses. "Spent the even- trig at home With Colonel Lee. Colonel Washington and Dr. Shippen, who came in to consult us," was John Adams' entry in his diary for Septem. bar 28th. No doubt Samuel Adams found the interview a trying one, and winced a IRtle under the examination of the calm and steady soldier, going so straight to the point, for all hie Vir- ginian ceremony. There had been many outward signs of the demogogue in Adams' ca- reer. He had been consciously and deliberately planning and scheming -: for Independence ever since 1768,and • had made public avowal of his pur- pose no longer ago than last year. It must have taxed even his adroit pew: ere to convince these frank Virginians that hi s purpose was not rebellion, but liberty; that he venerated what they venerated• and wished only what they wished. Finds Massachusetts Men Genuine. ]But the truth somehow lay open be- fore the evening was gone, There was frank cordiality In the parting: Wash- plied" tO Captain Mackenzie "that the people of Massachusetts are rebel- lious, setttng up for the Indelmndency, and what not• give me leave, my good friend, to tell you that you arc abused, - grossly abused. This I advance with degree of confidence and boldness • which may claim your belief, having better opportunities for knowing the real sentiments of the people you are among, from the leaders of them, In opposition to the present measures of the administration, than you have from those whose business it is not to disclose truth, but to mlsreprent facts In order to Justify as much as lXSible to the world their own con- duct." The Massachusetts. men had come to a better understanding of the game A Critical Business. tt was a Criticil business• this of drawing all the colonies into a com- mon congress, as if to create a di- • reeling body for the continent• with- out constitution or warrant. The es- tabUshment of committees of corre- spondence had seemed little short of seditious, for it was notorious the com- mittees were foned to concert action  against the government at home; but "this "congress of committees" was an a con- organizatlov to defy parlia- differences of opin- were blown hot between neighbors by such measures. Some of the best men in America were opposed to the course which was cow evidently to be taken. So 10ng as it was merely a matter of protest by the colonies severally, they had no criticism to make--except L that Mr. Otis and Mr. Henry unnecessarily high language, been bold and defiant beyond measure;, but when they aw how the pposition gathered head, hastened from proest to concerted resistance, their loyalty to his majesty's government, and avert a revolution. Opposed to Rash Measures. They were not men to be trifled wlth. Had they been able to unite upon active measures, had they ad- vanced from defence to aggressive ac- tion, they might have rendered them- selves formidable beyond possibility of defeat. Everywhere men of substance and of influence were Co be found bY the score who were opposed to a revolu- ti0nary agitation, such as this that now seemed to be gathering head. Even in Massachusetts men who bore the best and oldest names of the com- monwealth were of this number; in New York and Pennsylvania. at the very heart of the continent, they could, it was believed, boast a ma- Jority, as well as to the far south- ward, in the low country of South Carolina and Georgia. Without Hurt to the Empire. No one. they declared, but designing politicians and men without prop- erty, those who had much to gain and nothing to lose by the upsetting of law and ordered government, wished to see hls contest with the ministry pushed to extremes. They wished no less than others to see the colonies keep their lawful and chartered liberties• but the thing must be accomplished soberly, and without loss of things equally dear--of honor. and-the maintenance of an unbroken uglish empire. • The nice balance of the parties was disclosed In the congress itself. The Pennsylvania delegation was led by Joseph Galloway. a man in the prime of life, full of force and learn- ing, who had been speaker of the provincial house these eight years by the almost unanimous choice of his colleagues, and who now stood forth to utter the real voice of his colony in proposing measures of accommoda- tion. The Speaker's Proposition. He proposed that the home govern- ment be asked to sanction the estab- lishment of a confederate parliament for America, cvmposed of delegates to be chosen every third year by the legislatures of the several colonies. and acting under a governor-general to be appointed by the crown. Edward Rutledge, of South Care- !inn, hot orator for liberty though he was. declared in an "almost perfect plan," and was eager to see it adopt- ed; influential members from almost every quarter gave it their hearty support, Mr. John Jay, of New York, among the rest; and it was defeated only by the narrow majority of a sin- gle colony's vote, Chatham's Opinion of Congress. Chatham might very Justly com- mend the congress of 1774 as con- spicuous among deliberative bodies for Its "decency, firmness and wisdom," its "olidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, under such a complication of circum- stances was such as even he did not fully comprehend. For seven weeks of almost contin- uous session did It hammer its stiff business into shape, never wearying of deliberation or debate, till it could put forth papers to the world--an ad- dress to the king, memorials to the people of Great Britain and to the people Of British Aerica, their fel- low-subjects, and a solemn declara- tion of rights--which should mark it no revolutionary body, but a congress of Just and thoughtful Englishman, in love, not with license or rebellion, but with right and wholesome liberty. A Single Aggreive Act. Their only act of aggression was the formation of an "American asso- ciation" pledged agat'st trade with rest Britain till th legislation of wh)ch they complained should be re- pealed. Their only intimation of in- tention for the future was a resolu- tion to meet again the next spring, should their prayers not meanwhile be heeded. Washington turned homeward from the congress with thoughts and pur- poses every way deepened and ma- tured. It had been a mere seven weeks' conference; no one had deemed the congress a government, or had spoken of any object save peace and accom- modation; but no one could foresee the issue of what had been done. A Vision of United America. A spirit had run through those de- liberations which gave thought ft)l men, as they pondered it a new idea of the colonies. It needed no prophet to dis- cern beyond all this sober and anx- ious business a vision of America united• armed, belligerent for her rights. There was no telling what form: of scornful rejection awaited that decllir- ation of rights or the grave pleading of that urgent memorial .to the crown. It behooved every man to hold 'him- self in readiness for the .wora;, 'and Washington saw asclearly as any man at how nice a hazard things stoo(L Washington Not Deceived, He had too frank a. ndgment uPon affairs to cheat himself with false hopes "An  innate spirlt-of freedom first told me that the measures which administratiou hath for some time been and now are most Violently pur- suing are repugnant to every principle of natural Justice." had been his earn- est language to Bryan Fairfax ere he set out for the congress; "whilst much abler heads than my own hath fully convinced me that it is not only repugnant to natural right, but sub- versive of the laws and cdnstitutlon of Great Britain itself, in the estab- lishment of which some of the best blood of the kingdom hath been spilt. • . . I could wish, I own," he had added, "that this dispute had been left to posterity to determine. '' Could Be No Compromise. But he knew more cljearly than ever before, as he rode homeward from the congress through the autumn woods, that it had not been; that Lee and Henry and Mason were rightly of the same mind and purpose with the men from Massachusetts; that confer- ence had only united ad heartened those who stood for liberty in every colony; that there could be no com- promise--perhaps no yielding elther --and that every man must now take his soberest resolution for the times to come. Washington turned steadily to his private business for the winter, never. theless, as was his wont pushed for- ward the preparation and settlement of his western lands, and stood guard, as before, over the soldiers' grants up'on the Ohio, against offlciai-bad faith and negligence. The Busiest Man In Virginia. "For a year or two past there has been scarce a moment that I could properly call my own," he declared to a frlend who solicited his promise to act as guardian to his son. "What with my own business, my present ward's, my mother's, which is wholly in my hands, Colonel Fairfax's, Colonel Mercer's, and the little assistance have undertaken to give in the man- agement of my  brother Augustine's concerns, together with the share take in public affairs, I have been con- stantly engaged in writing letters, set- tling accounts, and negotiating one piece of business or another; by Which-means I have really been de- prived of every kind of enjoyment, and had almost fully resolved to engage in no fresh matter till I had entirely wound up the old." Does Not Shirk Responsibility. He promised to undertake the new charge, nevertheless. It was stuff of his nature to spend himself thus, and keep his powers stretched always to a great compass. With the new year (1775) public af. fairs loomed big again, and ominous. The petitions of the congress at Phil. adelphia had been received in Eng- land almost with contempt, Chatham, indeed, with that broad and noble sa. gacity which made him so great a statesman, had proposed that Ameri- ca's demands should be met, to the ut- most length of repeal and'withdrawal of menace, and that she should be ac- corded to the full the self-government she demanded in respect to taxation and every domestic concern. Chatham's Fervid Warning. "It is not cancelllnga piece of parch. meat," he cried, "that can win back America," the old fire burning hot within him; "you must respect her fears and her resentments. '• The merchantsj too• in fear for heir trade, urged very anxiously that there should be instant and ample conces- sion. But the king's stubborn anger• the parliament's indifference, the min- tstry's incapacity, made it impossible anything wlse or generous should be done, Adding Insult to Injury. Instead'of real concessions there was fresh menace. The ministry did, indeed, offer to exempt from taxation every colony that would promise that by its own vote it would make proper contri- bution to the expenses of public de- fence and imperial administratlon in the hope thereby to disengage the lukewarm middle colonies from the plot now thickening against the gov- ernment. But Massachusetts was at once pro- claimed in  rebellion, evei'y port in New England declared closed against trade, New England fishermen were de- nied access to the Newfoundland fish- cries, and ten thousand fresh troops rs red to Boton. . ok for No Concession. l'Rhr the pleas of their friends no the threats of their enemies reached tle ear of the eolontsto promptll¢ from over sea that spring; but th were not slow to perceive that they must look for no concessions; and did not wait upon parliament in their preparation for a doubtful future. Upon the very day the "congress of committees" at Philadelphia adjourn- ed, a "provincial congress" in Massa- chusetts, formed of its own authority in the stead of the house of delegates the governor had but just now dis- solved, had voted to organize and equip the militia of the colony and to collect stores and arms. Virginia In Arms. Virginia had been equally bold, and almost equally prompt, far away as she seemed from the king's troops at Boston. By the end of January Charles Lee could write from Williamsburg: "The whole country Is .full of soldiers, all furnished, all in arms. Never was such vigor and concord heard of. not a single traitor, scarcely a silent dissentient." "Every county is now arming a company of men for the avowed pur- pose of protecting their committees," Dunmore had reported to the ministry before the year 1774 was out, "and to be employed against government If occasion require. As to the power of government which your lordship di- rects should he exerted to counteract the dangerous measures pursuing here, I can assure your lordship that it is entirely disregarded, if not whol. ly overturned. There is not a Justice of peace in Virginia that acts except as a committeeman; the abolishing of courts of justice was the first step taken, in which the men of fortune and pre-eminence joined equally with the lowest and meanest.'" Washington Asked to Lead. Company after company, as it form. ed, asked Colonel Washington to as- sume command over it, not only in his own county of Fairfax. but in counties also at a distance--and he accepted the responsibility as often as it was offered to him. "It is my full intention." he said, simply, "to devote my life and fortune to the cause we are engaged in, if needful:" and he had little doubt any longer what was to come. Still Runs With the Hounds. He found time, even that stirrin year. to quicken his blood once and again, nevertheless, while winter held by a run with the hounds: for he was not turned politician so sternly even yet as to throw away his leisure upo anything less wholesome than the hale sport he loved. On the 20th of May, 1775, the sec- ond Virginian convention met. not in Williamsburg, but at Richmond, and its chief business was the arming of the colony. Maryland had furnished the ironical formula with whicl to justify what was to be done: "Resolved. unani- mously, that a well-regulated militia, composed of the gentlemen freehold. era and other freemen, is the natural strength and only stable security of a free government; and that such militia will relieve our mother-coun- try from any expense in our protec- tion and,defense, will obviate the pre- tence of a necessity for taxing us on that acount, and render it unneces- sary to keep any standing army-- ever dangerous to liberty--in this province." Patrick Henry Declares War. Mr. Henry, accepted the formula with great relish, in the convention at Richmond, in his resolution "that the colony be immediately put into a pos- ture of defense," but he broke" with it in the speech with which he sup- ported his measure of preparation. In this there was no plan or pre- tence of peace, but, instead, a plain declaration of war. Once more did Edmund Pendleton, Richard Bland, Mr. Nicholas, and Col- onel Harrison spring to their feet to check him, as in the old days of the Stamp act. Once more, nevertheless, did he have his way, completely tri- umphant. (TO BE CONTINUED.) DOCTORS MORE ADVANCED Writer Compares Medical and Legal Professions to the Great Disad- vantage of the Latter-. Every lawyer when young should be apprenticed to some good physician, and should return to him regularly through life. Then we might hope that from the neighboring profession of healing there might enter into him a "spirit never "to be wholly quenched by all the deadening influences of his work. No fact could well be moresurprio- tag or offer a more delicate psycho- logical problem than this, that within two professions touching life upon matters of equal importance, profes- sions of ancient dignity and learning, and irlviting to their service men of equal and rare ability, there should be o different a spirit. Medicine stands in this strange con- trast to law, that while the public is clamoring for the lawyers to advance, the lawyers themselves, as a class, offer the chief resistance; the medical profession constantly outstrips and leads the public imagination in de. vices to check disease• Although much at the start was due to laymen, the ctmpaign against tuberculosis, against infant mortality, against malarial and typhoid fevers, is largely captained and manned by doctors, who have the hearty suPl)ort of the profession as a whole. Of two Rip Van Winkles awakenins today, the physician would find hid vld methods as rust-eaten and usehss as his instruments; th lawTer, aRer 'a few hours with new statutes, Would feel at home In any of our oou Atlantic Monthly. LII..IVI00R,DLOBBY WITNESS, 00ONF[fiSE00] [{;[PTION AND I P[RSON00TION N. Y. STOCKBROKER DECLARES Hi ACTED AT ALL TIMES FOR EDWARD LAUTERBACH. WANTED FRIEND REINSTATED IN GOOD GRACES OF MORGAN Ledyard Testifies Lauterbach Called Upon Him With Plan to "Make Wall Street Good," After Lamer, Posing as Palmer, Had Arranged Meeting--Confessor Digresses to Charge $88,000,000 Forgeries Were Committed on Union Pacifi Books and That Road Juggled It= Auet=, Washington, D. C.--Davtd M. La- mar, New York stock broker, on the witness stand before the senate lobby committee, frankly admitted that he had impersonated representatives and other big public men in calling up officials of the Harriman lines in be- half of Edward Lauterbach, New York attorney. Lamar insisted that he act- ed at all times through friendship for Lauterbacb. and said he only wanted to secure him "perfect legal employ- ment," That Edward Lauterbach called on Louis Cass Ledyard. claiming o be the accredited representative of the Democratic leaders, and demanded that he approve a comprehensive pro- gram pledging Wall street to "be good," was also a sensational allega- tion made to the senate lobby commit- tee by Ledyard. Lauterbach called, Ledyard swore. following a telephone appointment ar- ranged by David.Lamar, the "Wolf of Wall street," who had represented himself as Representative A. Mitchell Palmer, one of the Wilson leaders in the house. Lamar, as Palmer. had quoted Speaker Clark and a dozen other Democratic leaders on questions of policy. Charges Assets Were "Juggled." Lamar said that he called both Judge Lovett of the Harriman lines and Paul D. Cravath, saying each time that he was Representative Riordan of New York. His testimony caused a sensation among the members of the committee. "Lovett's statement was not true, as he said that Lauterbach tried to 'blackmail' him." asserted Lamar em- phatically. Lamar called Lauterbach "the little man with the big heart, the man who can't keep a dollar in his pocket because be can't bear suffer- ing." Lamar also directly charged that the late E. H. Harriman and his asso, crates in 1901, at a time when the Union Pacific was in serious financial difficulties, manipulated the accounts of the railroad system so that they secured $82,000,000,000, which they used to finance the deals which later ffave Harrison his position as the rail. way wizard. The committee refused to permit Lamar to go into the details of this alleged manipulation, and later the attorneys for the Harrtman interests and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. read into the record a declaration that this story was planned in connection with a con. templated bear raid on the Harriman shares. The statement characterized Lamar as "the greatest liar of sod ern times." Later, Lamar illeged, the. princi- pals in the transaction went to Kuhn, Loeb & Co. and secretly got nearly $200,000,000, which, he believed, was for their own use. Name "Just Came to Me." Coming back to the Rlordan-Lovett conversation, Lamar said that he called Lovett, using Rlordan's name. "How did you happen to mention his name?" askl Nelson. "Oh, it Just came to me," he said. Lamar readily admitted that he had used Representative Palmer's name in talking to Lewis Case Ledyard. "Did yeu intimate that I,auterbach had influence in Washington?" asked Nelson. "I explain in substance. Then you can form your own judgment," Ps- plied Lamar. "Answer the questioq," demanded Overman. "I am strongly of the opinion," said the wttness, "that I went strongly t@ ward the affirmative in my conversa- tion with Mr. Ledyard, but I'll get down to it, senator. I'll get down to it." "How did you happen to use Pal- mer's name?" asked Nelson. "I saw him once at the Baltimore convention," the witness said, "and Palmer just then was much in the public eye and prominent in the ad- ministration." Lamar related the first nsucees- ful effort of President Roosevelt to end the 1901 and 1902 Pennsylvania coal strike. Following this, he said, Roosevelt asked Lauterbach to ar- range a "conference with Gee. Odell of New York, Senator Platt and Sen- ators Quay and Penrose of Pennsyl-., vanla. After the conference, he said. the strike was settled. Odell then threat- ened to rescind the charters of the coal carrying roads, and Quay threat- ened to force the Pennsylvania legis- lature at a special session to acquire the coal mines by right of eminnent domain. "After this." the witness added. "Morgan told me that he was criti- cised for letting me come to his of- rice. Then the Morgan interests' enmity to Lauterbaehbecame as overt as that of other interests. • "I resolved to find out about it, and ! knew Ledyard could tell me." Thinking he was talking to Palmer, the witness said, Ledyard told him over the phone what a blackmailer Lamar was. "He said he had started the opposi- tion to Lauterbach, and told me his opinion of myself, thinking I was Pal- mer. I realized at once that Ledyard had fallen into an error, a$d knew. that acting as Palmer I could force him to do anything I desired. So I told him to call Lauterbach and let him explain everything. "Lauterbach then made the famous visit." Lamar said that in all his telephonic conversations he was actuated solely by a desire to help Lauterbach. "If Lauterbach could bring the Mor- gan interests into haromny with the Democracy it would have been a great feather in his cap," he explained. "1 saw that the proposed juggle of the Union Pacific-Southern Pacific, Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylva- na was a farce," Lamar continued. "I realized that it would rouse indlgn lion country-wide. I say it now. Here is a government conferring with a great concern over a dissolution. The government is not sure. It doubts the law. The attorney general doesn't know about this. Finally he sends A. G. Carroll Todd to St. Paul to conduct this great battle, and they butchered him in five minutes, I think." Lamar testified he used the name of Representative Daniel J. Riordan of New York telephoning to Chairman Lovett of the Union Pacific. On another occasion, Lamar testi- fied, he called up Paul D. Cravath of counsel for the Union Pacific, sup- gesting Lauterbach would be a valu- able adviser. On another occasion he talked over the telephone to Lewis Cass Ledyard, using Representative Palmer's name, and with Maxwell Evarts. using Rep- resentative Riordan's name. In both conversations he spoke about Lauter- bach's services. Senator Nelson insisted-that Lamar testify explicitly whether he stated in those conversations that Lauterbach had influence tn Washington with of- ficials, senators or representatives. "I am inclined to believe that in my conversation with M. Ledyard I went very far in that direction on the af- firmative side," returned Lamar. "Why did you change to Palmer's name, instead of sticking to RloP- dan's?" demanded Senator Nelson. "Well, Mr. Palmer was very much in the public eye the• as one who would have grea influence at Wash- ington with the incoming administration," replied Lamar. He added he did no know Palmer and had no authority to use his name. Lamar said the late J. P. Morgan's opposition to Lauterbach caused him to telephone Ledyard, using the name of Representative Palmer, to try to win his confidence and find out who had otracized Lauterbach. "I found out It was Ledyard him- self," said Lamar. He added he kne Ledyard had a stenographer on the line making a record of the talk. "I read everything into it I could," said Lamar. "I think I offered him the entire government. I may have left the president out." Lamar set the committee into  laughter with his tory of how he impersonated Palmer; lectured Led- yard because he did not go to church, and told what remarkable things Lau- terbach could do at Washington for the Morgan firm. "I told him that the defiant attitude of the Morgan firm toward the Demo- cratic administration in congress had much to do with the decline in the, value of Morgan securities," contin- ued Lamar. "I called attention to the money trust and other and urged Mr. Ledyard to employ Lau- terbach•" "You were trying to convince Led- yard that Lauterbach was a sort €i John the Baptist for the Morgan firm?" suggested Senator Nelsou. "That's it exactly," returned Lamar, Manager Was Wire, Leading Tragic Mann"Did you see how I paralyzed,the audience in the death scene? They were crying all over the house." Stage Manager "Yes, they knew you weren't reedly dptd.'Tlt-Bits. When We Are Middle-aged. The simplest and most convincing answer to the question raised in your columns, "When are people middl aged ?" can be glean in a few words "When they prefer comfort to pleas- ure.--London Daily News. Welcome Delun. Doctor (to slk man's wif()"Doea your husband suffer from dehmion Mrs. Jones?' Mrs. Jones---"I hope doctor, Ho's been worrying for week over what he thinks your will be." k The Crank. "Is Jinks a confirmed pessimist? ' "Yes; he will never try to talk telephone because he says that th@ one of the 9,000.000 in the Unite4 .... States which would be of service t.. him Is sure to be in use." ?